Before explaining the steps and parameters used by zoologists in designing the perfect habitat for a group of species, it is essential to understand the ingredients of a good habitat. An efficient habitat is not just one that allows survival of the guest species, but one that exhibits an interrelated and hence, self sustaining chain of events which develops over time into a self governing and continuously improving eco-system.
A good habitat must cater to the food, water and shelter needs of a number of species. The landscape and plant cover forms a low placed but extremely essential rung of the habitat ladder. While designing a habitat, zoologists devote plenty of time and effort towards understanding the nature of the plant species available in the area. These plants and grasses initiate the food chains that may end up at mammoth predators. Hence, the study of the native plant varieties is an essential part of the designing of a suitable habitat. A geographical location that encounters extensive rainfall necessitates the planting of evergreen varieties that provide shade from the elements of nature. Similarly, flowering varieties with nectar content are planted while establishing an apiary. A cattle farm necessitates the planting of suitable grass varieties. Equally important is the provision of a perennial source of water for the animal species inhabiting the habitat. Easily approachable rivers and pools are the ideal epicenters of a well developed habitat of a variety of species. Shallow pools are preferred for amphibians and birds. However, it is also important to mitigate the problem of water borne diseases in an artificial habitat.
Thankfully, zoologists have well established practices and procedures to handle this issue. Feeders of many shapes and structures are available, and these find great application in designing habitats for birds. The height at which these feeders are placed also invited much deliberation from zoologists. A dead tree trunk serves as an ideal bird house for zoos. Sometimes, the establishment of a bat house is also necessary in an environment infested with insects. Bats keep the insect count in check. Small rodents and reptiles prefer living in a secluded place. Thus, a rock pile is preferred for such species, which hides them from the predators on prowl. Thus, the zoologists need to understand the characteristics of the animals and plants they wish to design the habitat for, in order to be successful in their efforts.